HOW AN INTEGRATED PV SYSTEM IS MADE IN A BUILDING
A complete system includes the following components: (1) photovoltaic modules , which can be crystalline or thin film , transparent, semi-transparent or opaque; (2) an inverter , which converts the direct current (DC) supplied by the modules into alternating current, or AC; (3) all support and mounting hardware, wiring, fuses, etc. the classic “networked” type (used to take advantage of state incentives and that immense natural accumulator that is the national electricity grid), but is an isolated system ( stand-alone), there are the following additional components: (4) a battery pack to store the electricity produced; (5) a charge controller , which regulates the energy that enters and leaves the batteries; (6) a possible “backup” generator system – such as eg. a diesel generator – which starts automatically when the main one cannot operate due to the absence of the sun or is unable to meet the energy demand.
Designing a building that integrates a photovoltaic system requires taking into account various factors, including: the use of the building, its location and orientation; the needs and objectives to be achieved in terms of aesthetics, energy, heat, lighting; the peculiarities and indications of the various photovoltaic technologies and related materials, etc. In parallel, other possible measures to improve energy efficiency must be considered
of the building, of which the photovoltaic electricity generation system is only one component. Usually, a photovoltaic system is sized on the basis of objective constraints, such as eg. the space available and the budget. However, in the case of integrated photovoltaics in new buildings, it is not necessary to look at the initial cost of the system but at the “real” one, which takes into account both the savings in construction materials and workforce and the higher value of the building deriving from the electricity produced in the life cycle of the plant itself.